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Muhammadu Buhari was born on December 17, 1942, in Daura, Katsina State, to his father Adamu and his mother, Zulaihat. He’s the twenty-third child of his father. Buhari was raised by his mom, after his father died.


Educational Background:

Military Career & Appointments of General Muhammadu Buhari


Platoon Commander, 2nd Infantry Battalion, 1963-1964;

Mechanical Transport Officer, Lagos Garrison, 1964-1965;

Transport Company Commander, 2nd Infantry Brigade, 1965-1966;

Battalion Adjutant/Commander, 2nd Infantry Brigade, 1966-1967;

Brigade Major, 2nd Sector, 1st Infantry Division, April to July, 1967;

Brigade Major, 3rd Infantry Division, August 1967 – October 1968;

Acting Commander, 4th Sector, 1st Division, November 1968 – February 1970;

Commander, 31st Infantry Brigade, 1st Infantry Division, February 1970 – June 1971;

Assistant Adjutant-General, 1st Infantry Division Headquarters, July 1971 – December 1972;

Colonel, General Staff, 3rd Infantry Division Headquarters, January 1974 – September 1974;

Acting Director Supply and Transport, Nigeria Army Corps Headquarters, September 1974 – July 1975;

Military Governor, North Eastern State of Nigeria, August 1975 – March 1976;

Federal Commissioner for Petroleum Resources, March 1976 – June 1978;

Chairman, Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation, June 1978 – July 1978;

Military Secretary, Army Headquarters, July 1978 – June 1979;

Member, Supreme Military Council, July 1978 – June 1979;

General Officer Commanding, 4th Infantry Division, August 1980 – January 1981;

General Officer Commanding, 3rd Armoured Division, November 1981 – December 1983;

Head of State and Commander-in-Chief of the Nigerian Armed Forces, December 1983 – August 1985.

Executive Chairman of the Petroleum (Special) Trust Fund (PTF), 21 March 1995 – May 1999.


Policies and initiatives (Extract from Wikipedia)

Economic policy

In order to reform the economy, as Head of State, Buhari started to rebuild the nation’s social-political and economic systems, along the realities of Nigeria’s austere economic conditions. [40] The rebuilding included removing or cutting back the excesses in national expenditure, obliterating or removing completely, corruption from the nation’s social ethics, shifting from mainly public sector employment to self-employment. Buhari also encouraged import substitution industrialisation based to a great extent on the use of local materials. [40] However, tightening of imports led to reduction in raw materials for industries causing many industries to operate below capacity.[41]

However, Buhari’s bid to re-balance public finances by curbing imports led to many job losses and the closure of businesses. [42]

Buhari broke ties with the International Monetary Fund, when the fund asked the government to devalue the naira by 60%. However, the reforms that Buhari instigated on his own were as or more rigorous as those required by the IMF. [43][44]

On 7 May 1984, Buhari announced the country’s 1984 National Budget. The budget came with a series of complementary measures:

A temporary ban on recruiting federal public sector workers

Raising of Interest rates

Halting Capital Projects

Prohibition of borrowing by State governments

15 percent cut from Shagari’s 1983 Budget

Realignment of import duties

Reducing the balance of payment deficit by cutting imports

It also gave priority to the importation of raw materials and spare parts that were needed for agriculture and industry.

Other economic measures by Buhari took the form of counter trade, currency change, price reduction of goods and services.

Buhari’s economic policies did not earn him the legitimacy of the masses due to the rise in inflation and the use of military might to continue to push many policies blamed for the rise in food prices.

Foreign policy

Buhari’s military government continued largely with the foreign policy it inherited from Shehu Shagari . In January 1984, in his new year broadcast speech, Buhari stated that he would maintain and enhance diplomatic relations with all countries and international organisations such as the OAU, UN, OPEC, ECOWAS and the Commonwealth of Nations. He also stated that he would honour all treaty obligations entered into by previous governments, which he did.

Buhari’s foreign policy also focused on Africa, mostly Nigeria’s neighbours due to financial commitments.

War on corruption

Buhari mounted an offensive against entrenched interests. In 20 months as Head of State, about 500 politicians, officials and businessmen were jailed for corruption during his stewardship. Detainees were released after releasing sums to the government and agreeing to meet certain conditions.

The Umaru Dikko Affair was another defining moment in Buhari’s military government.

Umaru Dikko , a former Minister of Transportation under the previous civilian administration of President Shagari who fled the country shortly after the coup, was accused of embezzling $1 billion in oil profits. With the help of an alleged former Mossad agent, the NSO traced him to London, where operatives from Nigeria and Israel drugged and kidnapped him. They placed him in a plastic bag, which was subsequently hidden inside a crate labelled as “Diplomatic Baggage”. The purpose of this secret operation was to ship Dikko off to Nigeria on an empty Nigerian Airways Boeing 707, to stand trial for embezzlement. The plot was foiled by British airport officers.

Buhari’s administration enacted three decrees to investigate corruption and control foreign exchange. The Banking (Freezing of Accounts) Decree of 1984, allotted to the Federal Military Government the power to freeze bank accounts of persons suspected to have committed fraud. The Recovery of Public Property (Special Military Tribunals) Decree permitted the government to investigate the assets of public officials linked with corruption and constitute a military tribunal to try such persons. The Exchange Control (Anti-Sabotage) Decree stated penalties for violators of foreign exchange laws.

War Against Indiscipline

One of the most enduring legacies of the Buhari government has been the War Against Indiscipline (WAI). Launched on 20 March 1984, the policy tried to address the perceived lack of public morality and civic responsibility of Nigerian society. Unruly Nigerians were ordered to form neat queues at bus stops, under the eyes of whip-wielding soldiers. Civil servants who failed to show up on time at work were humiliated and forced to do “frog jumps”. Minor offences carried long sentences. Any student over the age of 17 caught cheating on an exam would get 21 years in prison. Counterfeiting and arson could lead to the death penalty.


Civilian life

After his mother’s death, he was released in December 1988 and went into farming. While in detention, his farm was managed by his relatives. He divorced his first wife in 1988 and married Aisha Halilu.[3] In Katsina, he became the pioneer chairman of Katsina Foundation that was founded to encourage social and economic development in Katsina State.

Chairman of the Petroleum Trust Fund

Buhari served as the Chairman of the Petroleum Trust Fund (PTF), a body created by the government of General Sani Abacha , and funded from the revenue generated by the increase in price of petroleum products, to pursue developmental projects around the country. A 1998 report in New African praised the PTF under Buhari for its transparency, calling it a rare “success story”.



In 2003, Buhari ran for office in the

presidential election as the candidate of the All Nigeria People’s Party (ANPP). He was defeated by the People’s Democratic Party nominee, President Olusẹgun Ọbasanjọ.


On 18 December 2006, Gen. Buhari was nominated as the consensus candidate of the All Nigeria People’s Party. His main challenger in the April 2007 polls was the ruling PDP candidate, Umaru Yar’Adua , who hailed from the same home state of Katsina.


In March 2010, Buhari left the ANPP for the

Congress for Progressive Change (CPC), a party that he had helped to found. He said that he had supported foundation of the CPC “as a solution to the debilitating, ethical and ideological conflicts in my former party the ANPP”.

Buhari was the CPC Presidential candidate in 16 April 2011 general election, running against incumbent President Goodluck Jonathan of the People’s Democratic Party (PDP), Mallam Nuhu Ribadu of Action Congress of Nigeria (ACN), and Ibrahim Shekarau of ANPP. They were the major contenders among 20 contestants. He was campaigning on an anti-corruption platform and pledged to remove immunity protections from government officials.

Buhari ran in the 2015 Presidential election as a candidate of the All Progressives Congress party. His platform was built around his image as a staunch anti-corruption fighter and his incorruptible and honest reputation. He won landslide with a margin of over three million votes and was later sworn in as the President of the Federal Republic of Nigeria.






Major-General Buhari (Rtd.) has received several awards and medals. They include:

Congo Medal (CM)

Defence Service Medal (DSM)

General Service Medal (GSM)

Global Seal of Integrity (GSOI)

Gran Collar De La Orden De La Independencia translated as Grand Collar of the Order of the Independence was conferred on Buhari by President Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo of Equatorial Guinea at the Presidential Palace on 14 March 2016

Grand Commander of the Federal Republic of Nigeria (GCFR)

Loyal Service and Good Conduct Medal (LSGCM)


National Service Medal (NSM)